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[Solution] Chemical Substitution Reactions

by | Jul 18, 2022 | Recent Orders

Chemical Substitution Reactions

These form the basis of many of the precipitation reactions you have seen previously with the five “groups” of common cations. What you are to do with the following is to balance the reactions so that the same number of atoms of each type are found on each side of the equation. You are to (a) CIRCLE the insoluble product, AND (b) add the proper subscripts and coefficients so that the numbers of atoms balance. Notice that it is common practice to not write a number IF that number is “1”

OL =”1″ AgNO+ ___NaCl –> ___AgCl + ___NaNO =

LI___Fe(NO+ ___NaOH ___Fe(OH) + ___NaNO

Pb+ ___NaCl –> ___PbCl + ___NaNO

FeCl+ ___Na< S –> ___Fe + ___NaCl

Cr (NO) + ___KOH –> ___Cr (OH)< + ___KNO OL

Perhaps by this time you have noticed that most nitrates are soluble in water. — Next: Just to keep you on your toes, here are some others that you are simply to balance: OL type=”1″start=6 H –[catalase]–> ___O + ___H< O

H + ___KOH –> ___K + ___H< O

NH) H< PO + ___NH =OH –> ___(NH)< HPO+ ___H< >0</OL>

Now to advance your understanding into a new area – exothermic reactions. There are many reactions in which energy is released. Usually that energy is in the form of heat (and rarely as light). One of the common observations is that if H 2O is formed, the whole works becomes warmer. A most common example of this is when you neutralize an acid with a base as in #7 and #8, above. (Indeed, even #6 gets warmer.) Let’s take a look at three burnings of carbon compounds. You are to balance them and then order them in the amount of heat released per weight of carbon compound fuel used. (Hint: you might answer the second part by determining how many moles of the fuel is present in one kilogram, and then ascertain how many moles of water is produced by that amount of fuel. (For this calculation we will overlook any contributions made by the oxidation of the carbon atoms themselves. That will come next semester.) type=”1″start=9 C (coal) + ___O –> ___CO< ((carbon = 12); 83.3 moles/kg))

CH< (methane) + ___O –> ___CO + ___H O ((methane = 16); 62.5 moles/kg))

CH (ethane) + ___O2 -> ___CO + ___H >O ((ethane = 30); 33.3 moles/kg))

SUMMARY 1: It might be surprising to know that the Titanic and its sister ship the Leviathan were built so huge because they were designed to be the first passenger ships to traverse profitably the Atlantic solely by engine power (without sails). Previous attempts using coal-powered steam always resulted in running out of coal. / What do most ships use today? The answer to this last section (9,10,11) ought to support your answer! (Interestingly, shortly after the Titanic sank, the Leviathan sank in the Mediterranean.)

SUMMARY 2: which should be more efficient to use to heat your home: oil or natural gas? (Suppose that each cost the same per ton [oil would be more like ethane].)

And finally, a few more to keep you on your toes:

Name AND write the formulas for three strong acids:

Name and write the formula for one weak acid:

Name and write the formulas for two strong bases:

Name and write the formula for one weak base:

Now for a make-up question dealing with the making of a standard curve. You are measuring the amount of dissolved calcium ion in various mine waters. But first you make up a number of standard solutions of CaCl2 and read them in your flame photometer (with the proper optical filters, of course). Then you analyze two mine waters. Fill in the two blanks: align table cellpadding=8 border=1 sample reading concentration Std1= 0.60<TH>0.012M Std2 =0.90<TH>0.018M Std3=1.20 =0.024M Std4=1.80= 0.036M Mine1=1.15 Mine2=0.68

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